Wednesday, March 9, 2016

Why Women in Islam cannot marry 4 men












TABLE OF CONTENTS



Why Polyandry is not permitted in Islam 

1) Islamic reasons 

- 1.1) Inheritance issues 
- 1.2) Responsibilities of a Wife legislated in Islam
- To conclude: 

2) Imbalance in world Demographics 

3) THE DEATH RATE OF MALE IS MORE THAN FEMALE 

- 3.1) Alcohol consumption 

- 3.2) War, Genocide and ilk 

4) SOCIO-CULTURAL CHALLENGES 

5) ANSWERING SOME COMMON MISCONCEPTIONS & OBJECTIONS

- 5.1) ISLAM STARTED POLYGAMY 

- 5.2) It is Unfair to women 

- 5.3)  POLYGAMOUS MARRIAGES ARE A FAILURE

- 5.4) HOW DOES YOUR ISLAM GIVE WOMEN EQUAL RIGHTS WHILE IT PERMITS POLYGAMY BUT PROHIBITS POLYANDRY?! 

- 5.5) If Polygamy was to prevent men from cheating, why do they still cheat?

- 5.6) DNA is available today then why is polyandry still an issue? 

- 5.7) Why has your prophet then encouraged to have more children thereby encouraging polygamy ? Also one of his companions and some islamic scholars encourage the same

- 5.8) Polyandry has some economical benefits to the society. And sometimes even some social betterment chances. Then why not?

6) Conclusion



Why Polyandry is not permitted in Islam 


A commonly asked question by many Non Muslims and many a times even Muslims themselves that why is polygamy allowed in Islam but not polyandry [Woman having multiple husbands] . 

The most common reason for such inquiries are generally [exceptions excluded] based on or related to 


1) Women rights in Islam [including the notion of polygamy being oppressive against the feminine gender] 


2) Concept of Human rights such as equality 


While the above 2 may be the most popular or common reasons so as to why Non Muslims in particular arise such queries, but to delve into Women rights in Islam is beyond the scope of this article.  


So i request the readers and truth seekers to kindly re-direct yourself to this link as well : http://whytheshariah.blogspot.com/search/label/Women%20in%20Islam which hosts a number of very short yet powerful and evidence-filled narratives from Islamic texts showing the rights of women in Islam and in many cases boasting to be the only religion that ever gave such a right to women . 


The above link gives an in-depth glance so as to the concept of women rights in Islam from islamic texts ; thus it should be enough to cover the topic of "women rights in islam". 


Therefore moving further, to the next main doubt concerning polygamy is that is in not equal in implementation . 


My brief and initial response to such an argument would be not in words but in a self-illustrated image shown below : 








The modern day innovation of gender equality is practically a disaster. The reasoning are many but for the sake of brevity i will direct the readers to this Norway based study showing the stark reality of male-female differences in career paths in this developed nation. 


Norway - one of the most "gender equal" and developed nations globally - despite the trillions of dollars into Anti Islamic marketing and cultural values (such as gender differences) and despite the seamless efforts, the top notch University researchers, doctors and even professors confess that this plan (of opposing God's natural order by treating man and woman absolutely equal) is a failed idea.


See here: http://whytheshariah.blogspot.com/2015/04/norway-gender-equality-research-proves.html


If this is the case with Norway, then the eastern part of the world is all the more nature-prone and anti-feminists / gender equality concepts. 



Modern day "Feminism" is actually just a product of European culture trying to force itself on others because it presumes that is is superior to other cultures or more pro-women. Due to this preconceived notion they try to advertise these new feminist ideas  which were alien to human society previously and has an adverse effect to family ties. 

A brother who requested me to not name him,  directed me to this excerpt and he said 

" I am currently reading "African women and Feminism" edited by Oyeronke Oyewumi.  It discusses how "feminism" is, at least to African-born scholars, a Euro-American construct which many do not agree with. Their complaints in many ways mirrors what Muslims say." 

 Some snippets below pages 2-4:

"The term feminism usually refers to a historically recent Europe and American "social movements founded to struggle for female equality. Feminism by this designation has become a global political project" 

"current gendered practices of institutions such as the World Bank, the United Nations, and various governmental and non-governmental organizations that promote the tenets of Western feminist in the rest of the world."

"Global feminism forms a part of Europology-an elaboration of what is a distinctly European phenomenon into a human universal-which is hen imposed on all cultures"

End quote from Abdul Hakeem

But i wouldn't leave it here. Proceeding to the main topic of this article, following are some of the many reasons and wisdoms why Islam as a religion does not permit polyandry :




1) Islamic reasons 


The primary and most important reason why Muslims aren't allowed to permit or engage in polyandry is because it is simply not permitted by Allah and as Muslims we are commanded and expected to have faith in the divine law of Allah even if our limited intellect is unable to comprehend it fully


Allah commands : "It is not for a believing man or a believing woman, when Allah and His Messenger have decided a matter, that they should [thereafter] have any choice about their affair. And whoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger has certainly strayed into clear error."  [Qur'an 33:36]


He also says "  It is He who sent down upon thee the Book, wherein are verses clear that are the foundations of the Book, and others ambiguous. As for those in whose hearts is swerving, they follow the ambiguous part, desiring dissension, and desiring its interpretation; and none knows its interpretation, save only God. And those firmly rooted in knowledge say, 'We believe in it; all is from our Lord'; yet none remembers, but men possessed of minds. " [Qur'an 3:7]


Our faith demands that we believe in every word of the Qur'an, thus the following statement of Allah is what comes to mind under circumstances when we may be uncertain if such a thing is good or bad for us : 


"Does He who created (every single thing that exists) not know;  while He is the Subtle, the Acquainted?" [Qur'an 67:14]

"and it may be that you dislike a thing while it is good for you, and it may be that you love a thing while it is evil for you, and Allah knows, while you do not know". [Qur'an 2:216]


However, Islamically speaking polyandry will act as a strong hindrance in compatibility with its other laws such as but not limited to : 

1.1) Inheritance issues 


Laws of inheritance in Islam is based on many factors . This article is not the place to go in-depth of this massive topic , however briefly speaking many things are taken into consideration especially the gender . While some times gender-consideration is done because of Islamic reasons such as the man having the *obligation* to take care of the financial needs of his wife and children therefore the portion afforded to him as help is more than the woman. And in other times the woman depending on her relation or role such as grandmother, or mother or wife or sister have different portions in a man's property which again is determined by the relation they have with the man. 

For e.g. a maternal cousin grandmother cannot in any way demand an equal share in property/inheritance with that of her grandson's wife due to obvious reasons. 

However at other times inheritance also acts as a strong guardian of woman rights in times when the male members are not suitable or absent such as when a socio-cultural norm suppresses women from re-marrying or inheriting anything from their father or husband as happened a few centuries ago and even now in some religions and cultures. 

For e.g the qur'anic verse :  

"O you who believe! You are forbidden to inherit women against their will, and you should not treat them with harshness that you may take back part of the (Mahr) dower you have given them." (4.19) 

(Before this revelation) if a man died, his relatives used to have the right to inherit his wife, and one of them could marry her if he wished, or they would give her (to someone else) in marriage if they wished, or, if they wished, they would not give her in marriage at all, and they would be more entitled to dispose her, than her own relatives. So the above Verse was revealed in this connection.


Another example would be the differences between different religious laws such as Traditionally in Jewish law, females do not inherit and the first born (male) takes the double share but that is not the case in Islam 


Since a vast majority of world's adult population back then and even today are believers [i.e. not atheists] therefore Islamic law of inheritance was revealed so as to consider every aspect of the world demographics 


1.2) Responsibilities of a Wife legislated in Islam





The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, said, “Every one of you is a shepherd and is responsible for his flock. The leader of the people is a guardian and is responsible for his subjects: a man is the guardian of his family and is responsible for his subjects, a woman is the guardian of her husband’s home and of his children and is responsible for them, and the slave of a man is a guardian of his master’s property and is responsible for it. Surely, everyone of you is a shepherd and responsible for his flock.”



[Ref: Sahih Muslim, Book 20, Number 4496]



Commentary from experts on the above narration for a better understanding 



Ibn-ul-Atheer said in explanation of this hadeeth: “All of you are shepherds, and all of you are responsible over their flock. This means that they are entrusted guardians, and the flock are all those who fall under his guardianship.”



[Ref: An-Nihaayah fee Ghareeb Al-Aathaar, 2/581]

An-Nawawi said: “The scholars have stated that the shepherd is the entrusted guardian who ensures the well-being of that which he has been tasked and those under his guardianship. It also means that he has been commanded with justice in regards to those under his guardianship and to do what is required to fulfill their best interests in this life and the next.”

[Ref: Sharh An-Nawawi `ala Muslim 12/213]


Ibn Battal said Al-Mulhib said: “A slave entrusted with the wealth of his master. He is required protect what he has been entrusted like all other shepherds, and that he not do anything the majority of the time except by the permission of his master.”.

[Ref: Sharh Saheeh Al-Bukhari by Ibn Battal 6/531].

The Prophet of Allah (may peace and blessings be upon him) also said: Verily, you have rights over your women, and your women have rights over you. 

[Ref:  al-Tirmidhi, 1163, and Ibn Maajah, 1851] 

So in Islam, men and women have rights over each other, duties to fulfill, obligations to take care of ; which if neglected or abandoned incurs heavy sin and punishment by Allah. 


So in a polyandry marriage, If the woman is busy taking care of more than one husband, which one would she obey, taking into consideration that people differ in their nature and character? and that obeying the husband's valid needs are mandatory in Islam? 



One wants to travel and the other wants to stay where he resides, one wants to have sexual intercourse with her at a specific hour, and the other wants the same at the same time. One wants hot food and the other wants it cold, and other unlimited matters. So how can life be acceptable with the above conditions? In addition to this, she has to fulfill the need of her husbands whether in relation to sexual intercourse or else. If we assume that their needs are at the same time, how can she fulfill them? 



Just like how Islam guarantees the right of a woman to pleasure and bearing children [Click here for textual proof] likewise the husband has the right to enjoy his wife's company and have children with her .  But if she has 4 husbands it would complicate things such as 





a) if she is impregnated by Husband 1, then husband 2,3 and 4 would have to wait atleast 11 months before she gets physically healthy enough to cohabit and get impregnated another time . This is of-course assuming she is a super woman to go on for 4 consecutive years this way . But for normal human females , this simply won't work. A gap of a year is ideal as per doctors let alone a few months. So basically she will be depriving one out of 4 husbands for 3 years before he could even dream of becoming a father. 



b) It would exhaust the woman completely even causing her to develop physical and mental stress , diseases and breakdowns if she were to indulge in fulfilling her motherly and wifely duties in all of her 4 husband's house. 

Note: The above is very likely due to the physically weaker creation of the woman in comparison to men in general. Of-course women are stronger in many other regions and aspects but in physical strength men are created differently. And as is known to the wiser part of the human race that simply admitting that males are physically [not mentally] stronger than females due to their muscle structure, training, genes, etc. is not in any way demeaning or insulting women. It is a mere fact and for those who don't believe obvious facts unless a research data is shown then you may see :

- Dr. Neel Burton's - M.D [ author of The Meaning of Madness (link is external), The Art of Failure: The Anti Self-Help Guide (link is external), Hide and Seek: The Psychology of Self-Deception (link is external), and other books.] simple point wise statistical review here

- Or citations from Leyk, D., et al. “Hand-grip strength of young men, women and highly trained female athletes.” European journal of applied physiology 99.4 (2007): 415-421. Here: http://www.unz.com/gnxp/men-are-stronger-than-women-on-average/

- Or those who still don't like to believe nature's created facts , may also refer to the thesis paper Gender differences in strength and muscle fiber characteristics by Miller AE1, MacDougall JD, Tarnopolsky MA, Sale DG. here: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8477683


Thomas T. Perls - M.D - M.P.H ; Harvard medical school said : 

For all the centenarian age groups, men fared better than women in terms of cognitive and physical functional status, and this phenomenon has been previously described ...


To conclude: 

Above all reasons, comes the fact that polygamy fits within the framework of the purpose of shari`a (Islamic law), whereas polyandry goes directly against its objectives. The purpose of revealing shari`a was to serve the interests of people (masalih al-`ibad). 

According to scholars of Islam, these interests are preserving:

- Belief (deen) 
- Life (an-nafs) 
- Intellect and reason(al-`aql) 
- Wealth (al-maal) 
- Family and lineage (an-nasl)

All the rules, regulations, and laws in the Islamic legal system are dedicated to preserve these five major interests. They are known as the five ultimate objectives (al-kuliyaat al-khams).  

As the classical scholar , Imam al-Izz ibn Abd al -Salam (May Allah have mercy on him) said: 

قال الامام العز بن عبد السلام "إن الشريعة كلها مصالح: إما درء مفاسد أو جلب مصالح"

"Islamic Law (Shariah) in its entirety consists of [human beings' best] interests(Masalih),either by warding off harm(Mafasid) or bringing benefit(Masalih)"

[Ref: Qawaid ul Ahkam] 

Another medieval scholar Ibn Al-Qayyim writes:

فَإِنَّ الشَّرِيعَةَ مَبْنَاهَا وَأَسَاسُهَا عَلَى الْحِكَمِ وَمَصَالِحِ الْعِبَادِ فِي الْمَعَاشِ وَالْمَعَادِ وَهِيَ عَدْلٌ كُلُّهَا وَرَحْمَةٌ كُلُّهَا وَمَصَالِحُ كُلُّهَا وَحِكْمَةٌ كُلُّهَا فَكُلُّ مَسْأَلَةٍ خَرَجَتْ عَنْ الْعَدْلِ إلَى الْجَوْرِ وَعَنْ الرَّحْمَةِ إلَى ضِدِّهَا وَعَنْ الْمَصْلَحَةِ إلَى الْمَفْسَدَةِ وَعَنْ الْحِكْمَةِ إلَى الْبَعْثِ فَلَيْسَتْ مِنْ الشَّرِيعَةِ وَإِنْ أُدْخِلَتْ فِيهَا بِالتَّأْوِيلِ

Verily, the Sharia is founded upon wisdom and welfare for the servants in this life and the afterlife. In its entirety it is justice, mercy, benefit, and wisdom. Every matter which abandons justice for tyranny, mercy for cruelty, benefit for corruption, and wisdom for foolishness is not a part of the Sharia even if it was introduced therein by an interpretation.

[Ref:  `Ilam Al-Muwaqqi`een 11]


And since this article is not the place to go into these inter-islamic reasoning and details, this section will be concluded by mentioning that polyandry would affect the very structure of how things are in Islam with regards to this world such as socially and hereafter as well. 


2) Imbalance in world Demographics 




Demographics are the study of a population based on factors such as age, race, sex, economic status, level of education, income level and employment, among others.

It is well known that the male-female ratio in the past were always higher in women. i.e. there were more women than men in many parts of the world and even today this is dominant in many regions, even though the current world demographics seem to show an almost equal statistics yet the fact that in vast regions the women outnumber men largely. [depicted in pink colour below]






This issue was all the more prevalent in the past centuries for different reasons and in those times Islam a universal religion offered this polygamy solution to men thereby preventing a lot of mishaps such as 

- preventing women from being sold into prostitution due to lack of husbands or care-takers 

- preventing women from being deprived of the right to have a family because of less males 

- ensuring that women in a society would not tend or resort to evil tactics in order to stop others from catching hold of a male due to male-shortage 

- Ensured women did not have to go out do the labour work so as to survive or earn money, instead a single man could wed with multiple females and take care of them accordingly. 


3) THE DEATH RATE OF MALE IS MORE THAN FEMALE 


Due to varied reasons, depending on different ambiance and environment ; men tend to die younger than women thereby in many vast stretches of lands leaving a huge excess of women in numbers than men.  This general trait of men throughout the history up today is also a prime wisdom why polygamy comes to the rescue and not polyandry. 

Respected academics such as Stacy L. Andersen;  Paola Sebastiani,;  Daniel A. Dworkis;  Lori Feldman;   Thomas T. Perls (M.D - M.P.H ; Harvard medical ) and Ruth C. Fretts, M.D., M.P.H.- Harvard have detailed synopsis, research papers and more proving how and why Females survive longer than males . Some of the quotations from their works are as follows followed by references to where you can find them 


"....It is a fact of life that men enjoy certain physical advantages over women. On average, men are stronger, taller, faster and less likely to be overweight. But none of these attributes seem to matter over the long haul. For whatever the physical virtues of maleness, longevity is not among them.



Women, as a group, live longer than men. In all developed countries and most undeveloped ones, women outlive men, sometimes by a margin of as much as 10 years. In the U.S., life expectancy at birth is about 79 years for women and about 72 years for men. The gender discrepancy is most pronounced in the very old: among centenarians worldwide, women outnumber men nine to one. The gender gap has widened in this century as gains in female life expectancy have exceeded those for males.



The death rates for women are lower than those for men at all ages--even before birth. Although boys start life with some numerical leverage--about 115 males are conceived for every 100 females--their numbers are preferentially whittled down thereafter. Just 104 boys are born for every 100 girls because of the disproportionate rate of spontaneous abortions, stillbirths and miscarriages of male fetuses. More boys than girls die in infancy. And during each subsequent year of life, mortality rates for males exceed those for females, so that by age 25 women are in the majority....."




Men who live a life of crime may increase their risk of dying from an altercation, homicide or other risky, unlawful venture. Throughout history and across all societies, men commit more crimes in nearly every crime category, according to the Bureau of Justice Statistics. 

“It’s difficult to know why, although it’s probably due to genetics and sociocultural expectations regarding gender roles,”  says Dr. Donald W. Black, professor of psychiatry at the University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine and a consultant for the Iowa prison system. 

“The observation holds true worldwide. Men are also more likely to die by suicide, accidents and homicides.” 

National Vital Statistics report of U.S.A also argues the same and shows how female life expectancy is more than male even today in the 21st century


Additional reads: 







Some of the reasons common to why men die earlier in the previous centuries and even now are as follows 



3.1) Alcohol consumption 


The former Soviet states are notorious for men's short life expectancy, which is largely attributed to alcohol-related deaths. Strikingly, Russia currently has more than twice as many women than men above the age of 65. According to the WHO, women in Russia live, on average, 12 years longer than men, a larger difference than anywhere else in the world. The only countries that come close are other former states of the Soviet Union. It is this difference in life expectancy that makes the population in those states particularly female.
























3.2) War, Genocide and ilk 



Since time immemorial, men are always the first to pay with their lives when it comes to defense, offense, war, genocide by an opposition party , warring tribes or nations etc. all of them tend to eliminate their main challenge i.e. the fighting men force and enslave the female one's thereby further adding to the already vast female population in the world and creating a huge male-to-female ratio gap in that particular country/region


As an example i would like to present the much recent 20-21st century happenings so we all can relate and understand it easily such as the case of War and genocide in Rwanda, Cambodia and Iraq



























As you can see in the chart, both the Iraq-Iran war in the 1980s and the genocide in Rwanda in 1994 left those countries with a significantly more female population than before. Even more staggering is the effect of the mass killings by the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia from 1975 to 1978, when around a quarter of the entire population died.



Additional read : A very good compilation showing different reasons so as to why the females in a region tend to be more than males is enlisted here: http://qz.com/335183/heres-why-men-on-earth-outnumber-women-by-60-million/


Therefore polygamy in these cases comes to the rescue and not polyandry. 



4) SOCIO-CULTURAL CHALLENGES 



The very structure of a majority portion of world's society since time immemorial would be greatly affected and altered due to polyandry.  Previously in many civilizations and societies, a lot of modern day concepts were taboo and looked down upon by a vast majority. One of them was polyandry. 



Let us consider the scenario of lineage. Back then, DNA Tests weren't available so there was practically no feasible way to recognize whose child is it. This would stir havoc in the society destroying the image of the modest woman and also causing all the more violence among men and their immediate families to claim a right to the child . 


DNA Tests today also aren't of much help. This is still not socially acceptable in all regions and nations due to different standards of cultural behavior and morality each adheres to. 


Even in the secular western lands, it is still not quite okay for a husband to ask his wife to do a DNA test everytime she is pregnant. Then it is all the more difficult and awkward in the eastern part of the world due to many barriers. 



In the UK, there are over 200,000 paternity tests a year, twice that many in America - and those are only the official figures, not counting home testing. There is a long article in the New York Times about the emotional devastation caused to men who discover that their children are not really theirs. Stories appear in the media every now and then claiming that one in ten men are unwittingly bringing up someone else's child or, in China, nearly one in three men. Companies offer home testing kits with names like Peace of Mind DNA Paternity testing (in Ireland, for around 700 euros as peace of mind doesn't come cheap).



Peace of mind is the last thing these tests offer; they sell suspicion and stories about false paternity feed the doubt.

[Ref: Who Knew I Was Not the Father?- http://www.nytimes.com/2009/11/22/magazine/22Paternity-t.html?_r=0; Beijing: 30% of men not father of their children -http://en.people.cn/90001/90782/90872/6765744.html . DNA Peace of mind Kit : http://www.oqps.ie/dna-paternity-tests/]


Padma Laxhmi X wife of Salman Rushdie was quoted as "She also revealed the truth about the moment she found out she was pregnant with her daughter, Krishna, and didn't know if the father was Forstmann or venture capitalist Adam Dell, whom she was also dating at the time."



[Ref: http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/salman-rushdie-needed-constant-care-and-frequent-sex-says-indian-american-top-chef-host-and-supermodel-padma-lakshmi-in-her-memoir-love-loss-and-what-we-ate-marriage-ted-forstmann/1/613626.html]

So the issue of child detection is still a social challenge to many making it awkward for many and even affects them personally and psychologically even in today's era let alone 13 centuries ago. 


This is why Nancy E. Levine and Joan B. Silk said:


“The prevailing view in the literature has been that polyandry everywhere entails major contradictions… Evolutionary biology suggests that men are more likely to be dissatisfied with marriages in which their reproductive opportunities are limited, while socio-cultural, anthropology, and evolutionary psychology…. suggest that men are more likely to be dissatisfied with marriages in which their prestige is low and they have less control over their wives' sexuality.” 


[Ref: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/204624?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents; Published by  University of Chicago Press on behalf of Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research ]



“That human evolutionary history has been a history of greater variation in offspring by males than by females (i.e. polygyny) is known as assuredly as anything can be known in science…. humans have morphological, developmental, sex ratio, mortality, senescence, paternal and general behavioral correlates of an evolutionary history of polygyny shown by other polygynous mammals.” 



[Ref: Randy Thornhill & Craig T. Palmer, A Natural History of Rape (Massachusetts: MIT Press, 2001) Pg 38. ]



5) ANSWERING SOME COMMON MISCONCEPTIONS & OBJECTIONS


5.1) ISLAM STARTED POLYGAMY 


Answer : 

It is evident that the association of "polygamy" with Islam is not only unfair or biased but based on a serious misunderstanding. Polygamy was practiced, often without limitations nor regulations , in almost all cultures. It was sanctioned by various religions, and practiced, both before Islam, and for many centuries thereafter. The Mormons presently practice it - though secretly. Christian missionaries, in Africa and other areas, where polygamy is a social necessity, also allow it. 

Hinduism allowed it : Many Hindu religious personalities, according to their scriptures, had multiple wives. King Dashrat, the father of Rama, had more than one wife. Krishna had several wives.

The report of the ‘Committee of The Status of Woman in Islam’, published in 1975 mentions on page numbers 66 and 67 that the percentage of polygamous marriages between the years 1951 and 1961 was 5.06% among the Hindus and only 4.31% among the Muslims.

A government survey in 1961 revealed that polygamous marriages were highest amongadivasis, and then Buddhists, Jains, and Hindus, with Muslims at the end.

In 1974, a government survey found Muslims to account for 5.6% of all bigamous marriages and upper-caste Hindus accounting for 5.8%.

[Ref: http://www.huffingtonpost.in/2016/03/07/uniform-civil-code_n_9397118.html?ncid=fcbklnkinhpmg00000001  and http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/5004493.cms ]


Christianity : 

While the majority of Christendom today has denounced polygamy, it is interesting to note that many Christians did    not have the same view. The renowned sociologist, Edward Westermark, informs us that: 


“no Council of the Church in the earliest centuries opposed polygamy, and no obstacle was put in the way of its practice by kings in countries where it had occurred in the times of paganism…. On various occasions Luther speaks of polygamy with considerable toleration. It had not been forbidden by God: even Abraham, who was a "perfect Christian", had two wives.."

[Ref: Edward Westermark, Future of marriage in Western civilization (North Stratford: Ayer Publishing, 1936) Pg 172-173.  ]

and this is why In earlier times, Christian men were permitted as many wives as they wished, since the Bible puts no restriction on the number of wives. It was only a few centuries ago that the Church restricted the number of wives to one.

Judaism 

The Jews are known to have legalized polygamy for thousands years until the 10th century, when Rabbi Gershom B. Judah issued a prohibition of polygamy which was accepted throughout most the Jewish world (though it was resisted in a few areas). [1] More recently, Ovadia Yosef, a former chief rabbi of Israel, had campaigned for polygamy and the practice of concubinage to be legalized in Israel. [2]

[Ref:  [1] Julius H. Greenstone, “POLGAMY” in The Jewish Encyclopedia, ed. Kaufmann Kohler et al. (New York: Funk & Wagnalls, 1906) Accessed October 1, 2011. http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=425&letter=P

[2] Paul Valley, “The Big Question: What's the history of polygamy, and how serious a problem is it in Africa?”  The Independent, January 6th, 2010- http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/africa/the-big-question-whats-the-history-of-polygamy-and-how-serious-a-problem-is-it-in-africa-1858858.html ] 


Polygamy is thus permitted in Judaism. According to Talmudic law, Abraham had three wives, and Solomon had hundreds of wives. The practice of polygamy continued till Rabbi Gershom ben Yehudah (95% C.E to 1030 C.E) issued an edict against it. The Jewish Sephardic communities living in Muslim countries continued the practice till as late as 1950, until an Act of the Chief Rabbinate of Israel extended the ban on marrying more than one wife.


So on and so forth, every civilization had this concept of polygamy. So It is both, honest and accurate, to say that it was Islam that regulated this practice, limited it, made it  humane and instituted just rights and status for all wives. What the Qur’anic decree amounts to, taken together, is a discouragement of polygamy, unless necessity for it exists and this discouragement and warning can be easily proven from the following verses and their explanation by Islamic scholars (experts )

"And if you fear that you will not deal justly with the orphan girls, then marry those that please you of [other] women, two or three or four. But if you fear that you will not be just, then [marry only] one or those your right hand possesses. That is more suitable that you may not incline [to injustice]." [Qur'an 4:3]

This verse along with the verse 4:129 is the reason why scholars of Islam  both classical and modern do not encourage polygamy unless the husband is eligible  physically, morally and financially. As proof, i shall quote some of these classical and modern day scholars for the readers 

عن قتادة : " فإن خفتم ألا تعدلوا فواحدة أو ما ملكت أيمانكم " ، يقول : فإن خفت أن لا تعدل في واحدة ، فما ملكت يمينك

Imam qatadah [13 centuries ago] said as explanation of the above verse “ If in case you cannot even be just to one wife then you don’t have [the right to marry] even that one …. " 


[Ref: Imam ibn Jareer also supported this view, see Tafseer at-tabari under surah nisa ]

The below quotes are be taken from the qatar based islamic fatwa website islamweb.net

a) The Hanbali scholar Al-Hajjaawi may Allaah have mercy upon him wrote, “It is recommended to take only one (wife).” [Zaad Al-Mustaqni’]

b) Ibn Qudaamah may Allaah have mercy upon him from the Hanbali School of jurisprudence, said in Ash-Sharh Al-Kabeer: “It is more appropriate to marry only one wife. The author of Al-Muharrar [i.e. Abul Barakaat Al-Majd ibn Taymiyyah] said this, based on the saying of Allaah (which means) {...But if you fear that you will not be just, then [marry only] one}.” [End of quote from Ash-Sharh Al-Kabeer authored by Shams-ud-deen Ibn Qudaamah]

c) Ash-Shirbeeni from the Shaafi’i School of jurisprudence, said in Mughni Al-Muhtaaj: “It is a Sunnah not to marry more than one wife if there is no apparent need.” [End of quote]

d) Al-Jassaas, from the Hanafi School of jurisprudence, said in his Tafseer (interpretation of the Quran): “With regard to the saying of Allaah (which means): {…two or three or four…}, it implies that it is permissible for a man to marry two wives if he so wishes, three if he so wishes, or four if he so wishes, and he has the choice to marry whichever number among these. He said: if he fears that he will not treat them fairly, then instead of four, he should marry three, and if he fears that he will not be just between three, then instead of three he should marry two, and if he still fears that he will not be just between two, then he should marry only one.” [End of quote]



e) Shaykh Ibn Uthaymeen [ a 21st century scholar] may Allaah have mercy upon him said: “It is safer to restrict oneself to only one wife. However, if one sees that one wife is not enough for him and he cannot maintain his chastity by having only one wife, then we enjoin him to marry a second, a third, or a fourth, until he feels comfortable, lowers his gaze, and enjoys peace of mind.” [Excerpt from Ash-Sharh Al-Mumti’]

End quotes from Islamweb website. 

Another present day scholar shaykh Muhammad ibn Hadi al-Madkhali explained the same thing that it is not a joke to take more than one wife. You have serious consequences in terms of sins if you are unable to fulfil the pre-requisites of such polygamous marriage [Ref: http://ar.miraath.net/fatwah/5938)%5D]


5.2) It is Unfair to women 


Answer:

This judgement is completely subjective and not universal or general. For e.g. it is unfair to those women whose husbands do not follow the Islamic rules and guidelines and thereby do not treat them the way Islam mandates. But it is not unfair for those whose husbands treat them the way Islam demands. 

More so, Islam permits doing certain things for the greater good. For e.g. if one says that polygamy invokes jealousy among women so it is not good, then this is a very lame argument. Jealousy in humans is invoked due to multiple reasons and is not restricted to the " possessive" factor which a couple share . Otherwise even in single marriages , a woman's jealousy due to whatsoever reasons would tantamount to a sin against the husband. Islam is free from such biased, unjust and unfair methods of rulings. 

This is why there are numerous places in the world where women actually SUPPORT their husbands taking another wife for multiple reasons and this is not restricted to the Muslim world only. 

“Jealousy and competition among co-wives is typically focused on economic resources, especially when they are (perceived to be) insufficient… Generally, whatever the object of envy between co-wives, there is an unspoken agreement within most polygamous systems that a husband must share himself and his resources equally between all wives. If this agreement is broken, it typically triggers jealousy.

[Ref: Zeit, Miriam. Polygamy: a cross-cultural analysis. (New York & Oxford: Berg, 2008.) Pg 32-33.]


“ women in some African societies actually urge their husbands to take more wives....there is evidence to suggest that polygyny remains popular among women in many parts of the world“

[Ref: Cultural Anthropology: An Applied Perspective - By Gary Ferraro, Susan Andreatta    page 220]


“A wife is not like a machine, or a vehicle, that can be "traded in" or put into storage when a newer, more exciting model becomes available. As the Qur’an states, a man should only have more than one wife if he is capable of loving and caring for them. When children are added into the picture, it is a great man indeed who can successfully love and care for multiple families.” 

[Ref: http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Polygamy \]


5.3)  POLYGAMOUS MARRIAGES ARE A FAILURE


Answer:

There are two major flaws in this assertion 

1) The error of *linking* normal or regular un-islamic polygamous marriages with Islam 

2) The error of blaming Islamic method of polygamy for the failure of an unislamic polygamous marriage 

As for the first error, then if a man or a group of people do not follow the Islamic set of laws or conditions to indulge in polygamy , then it is not at all fair let alone sane to blame the consequences of such a polygamous act upon Islam. Because Islam permits polygamy only with certain rules and regulations [1]. Similar to a driver's license of a country . A country or state grants a driver's license only with certain rules , pre-requisites and regulations. Similarly, Islam allows to indulge in polygamy with rules and regulations and not without. Therefore blaming islam for un-islamic polygamous marriages whether they are carried out by Muslims or non Muslims is not at all fair. 

[1] See a brief glimpse into how Islam mandates wives be treated: http://whytheshariah.blogspot.com/2016/01/meaning-of-verse-and-live-with-them.html

As for the second error of somehow portraying Islamic method of polygamy as the *sole* or *main* reason for  a marriage failure ; then this too is flawed. 

Divorces or failed marriages are not caused due to Islamic polygamy. But due to multiple reasons such as but not restricted to : 

 Marrying for the wrong reasons [such as money]; arguments; lack of committment; mentality; and numerous reasons , some of which are enlistes here : http://www.msn.com/en-us/lifestyle/marriage/the-8-most-common-reasons-for-divorce/ss-AA3gtcM#image=1 and here : http://www.huffingtonpost.com/yourtango/10-most-common-reasons-people-divorce_b_8086312.html

the top reason for many divorces filed in USA and other western nations is adultery and cheating . This is documented with statistics here : http://whytheshariah.blogspot.com/2014/06/4-islamic-solution-to-adultery-and.html

More so, many muslims living in Muslim societies and lands have seen ample scenarios either in the lives of their grandparents or the near predecessors or even today especially in the arab world. 

Many wives even help their husband marry another wife for many reasons. for e.g : http://www.arabnews.com/saudi-arabia/news/863481  

Dying mother and wife finds her husband a new wife for his and their children's sake : http://www.elitereaders.com/dying-wife-spent-last-months-finding-husband-new-love/

Thus Islamic method of polygamy is not the reason for divorce. Unislamic way of polygamy, oppression by males and many other reasons are.  The proof of this begins with our own prophet and how he treated his wives [See here: http://the-finalrevelation.blogspot.com/2012/08/how-the-prophet-treated-his-wives.html] and his companions and those who followed them , many had multiple wives and their marriage stories are taught to us as an encouragement and an epitome of perfect marriage. Many of us among the arabs and non arab Muslims have our grandparents and cousin paternal aunts etc. having polygamous marriages and is a success. 



5.4) HOW DOES YOUR ISLAM GIVE WOMEN EQUAL RIGHTS WHILE IT PERMITS POLYGAMY BUT PROHIBITS POLYANDRY?! 





Answer :

Whoever claims that Islam gives men and women absolute equal rights in everything is lying. He is ignorant of the Islamic system and is merely trying to impress his audience . Islamic laws ensure that male and female both are treated justly in accordance to the law of Allah.

For e.g. see : http://whytheshariah.blogspot.com/2015/04/islam-promotes-equality-in-punishment.html

 In some instances male and females are equal say in rewards , obligations and punishments and in some instances they are not equal. Sometimes a particular obligation enforced upon males is exempted from women e.g. the obligation to provide for his family . 

And sometimes females are obligated with matters which are exempted from their husbands. 

Also, the child, the youth, the virgin, widow, divorced, adult, sane, insane, strong, weak, rich, poor everyone is treated with due justice as is deserving to their individual case . 

As described in the beginning of this article via a picture illustration,  equality in every instance is oppression . Whereas justice in every instance is only apt. 

So women are given certain privileges both wordily and religiously for hereafter which men aren't for e.g  See the following :



- THE STATUS OF A WIDOW WHO ENDURED HARDSHIP FOR HER CHILDREN

Link: http://whytheshariah.blogspot.com/2016/03/the-status-of-widow-who-endured.html


- A mother is not punished for her crime until she takes care of her infant for a stipulated time

Link : http://whytheshariah.blogspot.com/2015/04/a-mother-is-not-punished-for-her-crime.html

- Pregnant and breast feeding women are exempted from Fasting 


Link : http://whytheshariah.blogspot.com/2015/06/pregnant-and-breast-feeding-women-are.html

- A WOMAN HAS THE RIGHT TO BE DIVORCED IF HER HUSBAND IS UNABLE TO SPEND ON HER


Link: http://whytheshariah.blogspot.com/2015/08/a-woman-has-right-to-be-divorced-if-her.html


- Islam encourages and rewards for taking care of Divorced daughters whereas the same may not be the case for divorced sons 

Link: http://whytheshariah.blogspot.com/2015/12/muhammad-said-best-charity-is-to-take.html


- Islamic justice to the slave woman whose virginity was stolen

Link: http://whytheshariah.blogspot.com/2016/01/islamic-justice-to-slave-woman-whose.html

- So on and so forth. The laws are too many to quote. So i request the readers and truth seekers to kindly re-direct yourself to this link as well : http://whytheshariah.blogspot.com/search/label/Women%20in%20Islam which hosts a number of very short yet powerful and evidence-filled narratives from Islamic texts showing the rights of women in Islam and in many cases boasting to be the only religion that ever gave such a right to women 14 centuries ago - way before any modern day Human rights organization came up . [1] 

[1] For those interested see : Reply to atheist arguments on BBC Big questions programme Link: http://whytheshariah.blogspot.com/2015/05/reply-to-atheist-arguments-on-bbc-big.html



5.5) If Polygamy was to prevent men from cheating, why do they still cheat?


Answer:

Polygamy was not permitted in Islam *only* to help prevent a man from cheating his wife. Or help refrain him from adultery. Polygamy was never instituted as explained above because this concept already existed in Arabia before Islam with some of the companions of prophet muhammad having 10 wives, so the prophet informing them of the new rules in Islam for polygamy. 

Polygamy  was permitted with regulations for multiple reasons and benefit and helping restrain a man from committing adultery was one of them but not the sole reason. 

More so, as detailed above - following the regulations required for a Muslim to abide by , no man will cheat. Polygamy to a great extent helps a man refrain from adultery and this is a known fact. A known fact to Muslims who live around such societies and families. A known fact to us who communicate with our uncles and cousins who indulge in this and thank Allah for permitting this because it helps them keep away from cheating . 

So if a man or a woman cheats or yet commits adultery, polygamy is not to be blamed nor looked down upon because there are rules that come along with polygamy which one has to follow. Failure to which there is no guarantee polygamy will help him. For e.g. A man with a great sexual requirement does not want to burden his only wife because he knows that she is medically unwell. So Islam gives him a solution out to marry another if he is able.  Now instead of cheating outside he legally marries a woman gives her the reputation and status in society . 

Likewise a man whose wife cannot bear children, he has the option to marry another who can. 

In both the above cases despite his marriages to multiple wives he doesn't fear Allah and doesn't content himself with the restrictions and rules imposed and chooses to sin by cheating then why is Islamic method of polygamy to be blamed for his personal flaws?


5.6) DNA is available today then why is polyandry still an issue? 



Answer: 

The reason why polyandry isn't permitted primarily is because of islamic reasons and not scientific reasons. As shown above, i began this article by enlisting the primary reason to be Islam itself. Polyandry is not compatible with the Islamic structure at all. And it is really selfish, lame and unwise for a person to suggest another to abandon his whole religion only to accept polyandry. 

More so, 

Islam is a religion for all times. The Flexible Islamic law claims that its injunctions and methodology is justly apt for every era and not merely one or two era's. Therefore Islam will not permit something that is bound to cause chaos say for e.g. 13 centuries only because the 14th century would have a solution . e.g. Islam would not permit polyandry knowing it was bound to cause chaos for 13 centuries only because the 14th had a way out via DNA. And neither will it prohibit something that is bound to wreck havoc for 13 centuries only because the 14th would have a solution compatible with that prohibition. Every commanded law of Islam is universal and applicable favorably at all times. This is the Islamic challenge . 

Also DNA testings are not always 100% accurate and has many loopholes. See the following articles for more information. 


Is Forensic DNA 100% Accurate? : http://www.councilforresponsiblegenetics.org/blog/post/Is-Forensic-DNA-10025-Accurate.aspx


http://www.popsci.com/dna-evidence-not-foolproof

Forensic DNA testing not as reliable as most people believe



5.7) Why has your prophet then encouraged to have more children thereby encouraging polygamy ? Also one of his companions and some islamic scholars encourage the same


Urging more children doesn't necessarily mean more wives. In afghanisthan, pakistan and even the arab world , even in the hindu royal families and african families a single woman bears 6-10 children . they have been so in the past and even today many such regions are filled with such examples. If you ask Muslims from the indian subcontinent you will find almost all of our grandparents and their parents had many children from one wife. So the prophetic encouragement to have more children does not necessitate more wives.

The prophet peace and blessings be upon him urged Muslims to have more children so as to ensure that a large number of humans recieve the divine guidance and have them enter eternal paradise. 

It is not surprising that a man who has achieved or taught something beneficial say even for a normal physics tutor to want more people benefit from his teachings. It makes him proud and happy to see so many people learnt something they didn't know before. Likewise our prophet wanted his ummah or the human race to have as many believers as it can so as to achieve multiple benefits such as 

1) ensure the continuity of the religion despite wars and famine etc. 

2) ensure that others among non muslims see the goodness in this religion and accept it and this is more easily achieved when a group encounters another due to their large number than when a group researches into a tiny minority of a tribe or religion 

3) ensure that his followers be the maximum to enter eternal paradise 

4) to ensure that the beautiful gift and guidance of Islam reach as many people as it can 

5) for economical and financial prosperity , so on and so forth. 

This is something which every nation even secular one's do to this day 


5 ways Europe is trying to convince its citizens to make more babies : https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2015/04/10/5-ways-europe-is-trying-to-convince-its-citizens-to-make-more-babies/

1. In Denmark, schoolchildren are taught in class that they should have more babies

2. TV ads promote sex as acts of patriotism

3. In Sweden, either moms or dads are paid nearly their full salary for more than one year — for staying at home

4. French children can do nearly everything for free or for a discounted price

5. This dating site is only for Danes who want to have children

[Ref: : https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2015/04/10/5-ways-europe-is-trying-to-convince-its-citizens-to-make-more-babies/]

This concept of less children is actually a modern day concept. Previously in almost every part of the world, the number of children denoted strength in many ways. Political strength for ruling class, financial status for the common folk , strength of a woman's physical ability , so on and so forth

ROSS DOUTHAT wrote a column last Sunday on the recent decline in US birthrates that started out by observing that pro-family policies in places like Sweden and France lead to more births, a point that earned numerous cross-aisle plaudits from lefties. He then finished by arguing that lower birthrates are also in part "a symptom of late-modern exhaustion—a decadence that first arose in the West but now haunts rich societies around the globe."

[Ref: http://www.economist.com/blogs/democracyinamerica/2012/12/birthrates]

Europe needs many more babies to avert a population disaster : http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/aug/23/baby-crisis-europe-brink-depopulation-disaster


Goodie bags


Finland gives away a maternity package of various warm-weather clothes, pajamas, and books to families of newborns—or a cash grant of €140.

[Ref: http://www.kela.fi/web/en/maternitypackage] 

POLAND PAYING FAMILIES TO HAVE MORE BABIES



France plans to pay cash for more babies


SUVs and refrigerators


In 2007, Russian authorities made September 12 the country’s national Day of Conception and offered women who gave birth nine months later, around the country’s National Day, a chance to win SUVs, refrigerators, or cash. While Russia still faces high mortality rates and its population will likely shrink over the next several years, fertility rates have been steadily increasing.

For more offers and bumper prizes to produce more children in the secular world see : http://www.npr.org/sections/money/2011/11/03/141943008/when-governments-pay-people-to-have-babies


5.8) Polyandry has some economical benefits to the society. And sometimes even some social betterment chances. Then why not?

Answer: 

For the sake of argument and keep this short, let us agree that okay polyandry has some benefits to offer. However, In Islam, we have a principle which in arabic is called " Sadd adh-dhar'ai" or in simple terms closing the door [to evil]. This principle is an important jurisprudence tool with which a lot of doors leading to hardship and sins are closed. In order to prevent what frequently happens in the world today wherein college going girls or women in general don't know whose child they are carrying, was it after a one night stand last month? or was it the neighbour 2 months back?. It for these reasons that Islam prohibits these dealings.  This is reflected in the below verse : 


They ask you about wine and gambling. Say, "In them is great sin and [yet, some] benefit for people. But their sin is greater than their benefit." And they ask you what they should spend. Say, "The excess [beyond needs]." Thus Allah makes clear to you the verses [of revelation] that you might give thought. [Qur'an 2: 219]



When it comes to economic benefits then a lot of things could contribute to such benefits such as abandoning the support and financial aid given to the old people of a nation because old folks do not contribute in any significant way to the working class or the current economy. On the contrary their diseases, health expenditure, heating and electricity bills paid by the govt is a burden . 

Should we then for the sake of economic and financial benefit abandon every aid given to old people? 

This is why we need religion , to keep us moral and not subject us to our whims and desires such that for some benefit we open the door to a greater harm. As allah truly said In them is great sin and [yet, some] benefit for people. But their sin is greater than their benefit.


6) Conclusion

The primary reason why polyandry isn't permitted is due to Islamic law. The secondary reasons fall under the added or possible wisdoms behind this divine law, some of which are enlisted above. 

Those who are shocked upon seeing how Islam could permit polygamy or prohibit polyandry should have a look at these absurd man made secular laws : http://whytheshariah.blogspot.com/2014/11/some-absurd-man-made-laws-for-those-who.html [Warning : highly laughable] 


more so, a lot of absurd and disgusting rules in the secular world are being permitted but there is no outcry against them such as 


1. Marital cheating websites like ashley madison[link avoided]


2. naked protests by women feminists [video link avoided]


3. and all form of other filth such as the naked shopping season in france [link avoided]


4. Threesome and foursome relationships are being encouraged, even incest is legal now in some places as it doesn't oppose the secular man made laws [link avoided]


5. have relations with 500 people before marriage that is fine , but marry 4 wives is not?! [western world fact] 

6. Homosexuality

In the presence of such things , people have the audacity to attack Islamic method of polygamy?! 


Recommended read : Why Polyandry Fails: Sources of Instability in Polyandrous Marriages 

See : "Man and three women who are all lovers reveal what it's REALLY like to be polyamorous - insisting it works better than marriage. A group of polyamorous lovers have lifted the lid on their unconventional relationships in a video that aims to highlight what it's like to have multiple partners.

Josh, Sarah, and Alyssa all live under one roof as a polyfamily. Mary Ashley, their latest girlfriend, is also part of the set-up, but lives separately. "

Link: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/femail/article-3487504/Man-three-women-lovers-reveal-s-REALLY-like-polyamorous-insisting-works-better-marriage.html

 
Compiled by TFR [ www.the-finalrevelation.blogspot.com] . Completed on 9th March 2016

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